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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 140-145

Association of asymptomatic structural cardiac defects in neonates with transient tachypnea at birth: A case-control study

1 Department of Paediatrics, 166 Military Hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, INHS Kalyani, Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Department of Pediatrics, Army Institute of Cardiothoracic Sciences, Pune, Maharashtra, India
4 Department of Psychiatry, Level III Hospital, Goma, DRC
5 Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Level III Hospital, Goma, DRC

Correspondence Address:
Shibu Sasidharan
Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Level III Hospital, Goma
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpai.jpai_5_21

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Background: Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTNB) has been documented as the most common cause of neonatal respiratory distress, accounting for more than 40 percent of cases. Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective study on 75 patients (neonates who were born with TTNB) who underwent two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (Echo) after tachypnea subsided. The controls (neonates who did not manifest tachypnea) were matched for birth weight, period of gestation, mode of delivery, and sex. Appropriate Chi-square tests were done for categorical variables, while Student's t-test was done for continuous variables. Results: Incidence of asymptomatic structural cardiac lesions detected by 2D Echo was significantly higher in neonates in the study group (n = 38; 50.66%) as compared to the control group (n = 7; 9.33%). This difference was statistically significant P < 0.0000002 (odds ratio 9.4586; 95% confidence interval 3.84–23.27). The most common cardiac lesion in both groups was atrial septal defect. Conclusion: The incidence of asymptomatic structural cardiac defects was found to be approximately five times higher in neonates manifesting TTNB (50.66% vs. 9.33%). Based on the findings of this study, screening for structural cardiac lesions by 2D echo is recommended in all neonates who manifest with TTNB.

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